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  1. Russian authorities decided to impose export duties on aluminum ingots and billets, setting a base rate of 15% and a specific minimum of $254 per ton, just as European aluminum buyers were beginning to believe the situation could not get any worse. According to an official decree signed last month, export tariffs will be applied to approximately 340 nonferrous and steel products. In the case of aluminum, it will cover products with the HS code beginning with 760110. The aluminum market in Europe The European aluminum market, particularly for semi-finished aluminium seamless products, is already extremely constrained. Many mills are already fully booked until the end of the year, if not longer. Companies with capacity for the fourth quarter have increased conversion premiums by as much as 30% in the last few weeks, according to the most recent data available. The rising cost of Russian ingot and billet supplies will add to the already high Rotterdam delivery premiums, which are already at a record high. They will gradually increase the premiums for physical delivery to the Midwest of the United States and the Main Japanese Port. Fastmarkets reported that the P 1020 premium in warehouse duty paid Rotterdam price increased from $250-$260 per ton in late June to $280-$300 per ton last week in Rotterdam, according to Fastmarkets. Related News: Aluminium rises as Russia's new export tax fuels supply concerns Automobile exports reached 23.6 billion dollar in first half, highest in 7 years India poised for double-digit growth this fiscal; disinvestment climate looks better: Niti VC Swift recovery expected due to limited impact of lockdown on economy: Survey UAW factory workers ratify deal, will end Volvo truck strike How the world’s first carbon border tax may play out This is known as the knock-on effect. Russia is a significant supplier of primary seamless aluminium tube to Europe and Asia, with a share of the global market. Physical delivery premiums in these two major markets are expected to rise, which will inevitably have a knock-on effect on the Midwest premium in the United States. That is true despite the fact that Russia is no longer the primary metal supplier to North America that it once was. Metallurgical consumers in Europe had hoped that, as the supply chain began to rebalance, conversion premiums would be reduced by the end of the year, allowing them to save money on their metal purchases. Although it is becoming increasingly clear that a tight primary supply market, sustained robust demand, and lengthening lead times at both flat-rolled and extrusion mills will result in high premiums lasting well into 2022, the situation is becoming increasingly dire. Furthermore, there is little evidence of a price easing before the end of the year, which is concerning.
  2. When it comes to the production of LCD screens, the PCB circuit board plays an extremely important role, so it is important to understand what the PCB circuit board is playing with. He holds such a position in the production of LCD screens, don't you think? 1. A high density of information The wiring density of printed circuit boards (PCBs) increases gradually in order to accommodate the fine spacing of surface mount components and the development of multi-lead technology. At the moment, the lead spacing is 0.762mm > 0.635mm -0.508 mm. 3 -0.381mm > 0.305mm 3 +0.381mm > 0.305mmThe line width and line spacing of PCB components have been reduced. Small to 0.15 0.1 mm, more | line, the application of fine pitch components, and the density of the PCB installation all help to improve the density of the PCB installation. Printed using conventional plug-ins Inadequate adhesion, poor welding, or even failure to fall off the surface mount components are caused by surface, concave, and convex textures. Indirectly, but also directly, this is due to the warping of the PCB. 2. The small opening With the increase in component assembly density, the wiring density on the board increases significantly, and the aperture on the board decreases day by day. The diameter of the metallization through-hole is typically 0.600.30mm, with a direction of 0.30 0.10 mm. 3. There are many layers to consider With the continuous improvement in the integration degree and assembly density of electronic components, as well as the miniaturization and ultra-miniaturization of electronic components, PCB board is not only suitable for but also advantageous in a variety of applications. The use of single and double panels in multilayer panels with high wiring densities is also common. The sunlight-readable LCD module has 68 and 4 layers, respectively. 4. The transmission characteristics of a PCB circuit board are exceptional It has been proposed that the characteristic impedance, surface insulation resistance, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and other high-frequency properties of PCB be studied in conjunction with the development of high-frequency operating circuits. PCB substrates are subjected to more stringent requirements. 5 - Excellent flatness and smoothness Because the components are mounted directly on the printed circuit board, the surface of the circuit board must be flat and smooth to ensure proper operation. The rough surface of the fiber cloth, as well as the concave and convex texture, will result in poor adhesion of surface mount components, as well as poor welding, and even the inability to fall off the surface mount component. Because of the PCB warp, not only does it directly affect the automatic SMT and welding position, but it also has the potential to chip components caused by deformation and some tiny cracks, resulting in circuit failure. Because of the good, small warp, the baseboard has excellent comprehensive performance. 6. Stability is very good During component installation, thermal expansion of the printed circuit board (PCB) places stress on the component's electrode, resulting in component damage or solder joint failure. As a result, when it comes to PCB design and material selection, the thermal expansion coefficient of the substrate is an important factor to consider. The expansion coefficient of the printed circuit board (PCB) must be kept as low as possible, and the expansion coefficients of the components and the PCB must be the same. The substrate of a printed circuit board is made of epoxy resin or epoxy phenolic resin as a binder, cotton fiber cloth, paper, and glass fiber cloth as reinforcement materials, and the surface is covered with electrolytic copper foil and pressed. The STN LCD module is available in a variety of printed circuit board thicknesses, including 0.5mm, 1.0mm, 1.2mm, 1.6mm, and 2.0mm.
  3. Sand casting is a casting technique that is widely used. It is, as the name implies, engaged in the process of creating molds from sand. In order for sand casting to take place, the finished part model must be placed into the sand. After that, the mold is filled with sand at the end of the mold to form a mold. It is necessary to separate the mold into two or more parts if it is necessary to remove the mold prior to casting the metal. It is necessary to modify the mold in order to incorporate holes for casting metal into the mold. The mold is left in place for an appropriate amount of time until the metal solidifies. As soon as the part is removed, the mold is destroyed, necessitating the creation of a new mold for each casting. Large parts can be cast using a sand mold processing plant. Sand molds can be used in a variety of casting processes, including iron casting, bronze casting, brass casting, and aluminum casting. The wet mold casting process is yet another type of sand mold casting process that is low in cost and can produce parts of varying sizes and shapes. Sand cast parts that are smaller in size, such as gears, pulleys, crankshaft, connecting rods, and propellers, are also available. Housings for large equipment and heavy machine bases are examples of larger-scale applications. Sand casting is also commonly used in the production of automobile components such as engine blocks, engine manifolds, cylinder heads, and transmission cases, among other things. Using the Sand Casting Process 1. A sand casting model is created The traditional method is to obtain the casting drawings and then send them on to the foundry for production to begin. This procedure can be completed within the quotation. Customers and foundry manufacturers are increasingly relying on computer-aided design (CAD) rather than traditional CAD. 2. The presence of mold Sand casting is accomplished through the use of a mold made of wood or other metal materials. In this process, we ask our engineers to design the mold so that it is slightly larger than the finished product; the difference between the two sizes is referred to as the shrinkage allowance. The goal is for the molten metal to act on the mold in order to ensure solidification and shrinkage of the molten metal, thereby preventing voids in the casting process. 3. The creation of the core The resin sand is placed in the mold to form the casting with an internal surface during the core-making process. As a result, the final casting is formed in the space between the core and the mold cavity. 4. The process of forming It is necessary to prepare a pair of molds before beginning the melting and forming process. Molding typically consists of assembling the mold's support frame, pulling the mold out to separate it from the casting during casting, melting the previously placed core in the mold, and then closing the mold entrance. 5. Cleaning and disinfection Grit, grind, and excess metal from the casting are removed during the cleaning process. Castings can have their surface appearance improved through welding and desanding. The burnt sand and scale are removed from the casting in order to improve the appearance of the surface. Excess metal and other risers are removed from the area. Welding and grinding are the next steps. The defects and overall quality were checked at the end of the process. The Advantages of Sand Casting 1. The dimensional accuracy of sand castings is extremely good. After the mold is finished, there is no mold, no parting, no casting slope, and no live block. In many cases, the sand core is eliminated, and in some cases, the sand core is only used to make horizontal small holes. After the mold is finished, there is no mold, no parting, no casting slope, and no live block. 2. Increase the degree of freedom in the design of sand casting parts and shift the connotation of sand casting to the process of creating the casting structure. Product designers can design the structure of castings in accordance with the overall requirements, increasing the degree of design freedom available for sand casting parts. 3. Simplify the sand castings production process, shorten the production cycle, increase labor productivity, reduce labor intensity, and improve working conditions for all employees in the company. 4. The sand castings are of high quality, with high dimensional accuracy, no burrs or burrs, and a low rejection rate, as demonstrated by the following characteristics: Reduce the amount of material used and the cost of castings by as much as possible. Cost Drivers in the Sand Casting Industry The cost of materials Metal, melting metal, mold sand, and core sand are all included in the cost of materials for sand casting. The cost of materials for sand casting also includes the cost of the metal and of melting it. A part's weight is determined by the volume and density of the part, as well as the unit price of the material used in the manufacturing process, which are all calculated by the manufacturer. It is also true that the melting cost for heavier parts will be higher, and this will be influenced by the material used, as some materials are more expensive to melt than others, as previously stated. When compared to the cost of the metal, the melting cost, on the other hand, is frequently low. The weight of the part has a direct relationship with the amount of mold sand that is used and, as a result, with the cost of the part as a result. Last but not least, the number and size of the cores used in the part's casting process determines how much it will cost to purchase core sand for the job. Expenses associated with production Cost of manufacturing an item includes a variety of processes that are required to cast the part, including core-making, mold-making, pouring, and cleanup. Core-making is one of the most expensive processes. A core's cost is determined by the volume of cores produced and the number of cores that are used in the casting process. Mold-making costs do not differ significantly depending on the geometry of the part when automated equipment is used. The presence of cores, on the other hand, will cause the process to move more slowly and, as a result, will raise the cost slightly. Finally, the weight of the item has an impact on both the cost of pouring the metal and the cost of cleaning the final casting after it has been completed. A larger and heavier casting will take longer to pour, clean, and finish because of its increased size and weight. The cost of tooling When it comes to tooling costs, the pattern and the core boxes are the two most important factors to consider. The cost of the pattern is primarily determined by the size of the part (both in terms of the envelope and the estimated area), as well as the complexity of the part that is being manufactured. In order to determine the cost of the core-boxes, it is necessary to first determine their size, which is determined by the number and size of cores that are used in the casting process. When it comes to creating this component of tooling (along with its size), the complexity of the cores, as well as their pattern, will have an impact on how long it takes and how much it costs (in addition to how large the core is). The number of pieces that are cast will have an impact on the cost of tooling as well. It will be necessary to use a tooling material that will not wear under the required number of cycles if the manufacturing quantity is increased, and this will be true for both the pattern and core-boxes. A more durable and long-lasting tooling material will be used, which will result in a significant increase in the cost of the tooling.